Comorbidities

Bateman BT, Mhyre JM, Hernandez-Diaz S, Huybrechts KF, Fischer MA, Creanga AA, Callaghan WM, Gagne JJ. Development of a comorbidity index for use in obstetric patients. Obstet Gynecol (2013). 122(5). doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182a603bb.

Mhyre JM, Bateman BT, Leffert LR. Influence of patient comorbidities on the risk of near-miss maternal morbidity or mortality. Anesthesiology (2011). 115(5): 963-972.

High Risk Pregnancies

Iriye BK, Gregory KD, Saade GR, Grobman WA, Brown HL. Quality measures in high-risk pregnancies: Executive summary of a cooperative workshop of the society for maternal-fetal medicine, national institute of child health and human development, and the American College of obstetricians and gynecologists. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (2017). B2-B25.

Mikolajczyk RT, Zhang J, Grewal J, Chan LC, Peterson A, Gross MM. Early versus late admission to labor affects labor progression and risk of cesarean section in nulliparous women. Frontiers in Medicine (2016). 3(26): doi: 10.3389/fmed.2016.00026.

Mishanina E, Rogozinska E, Thatthi T, Uddin-Khan R, Khan KS, Meads C. Use of labor induction and risk of cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ (2014). 186(9): 665-673.

Implementation Science

Iriye BK, Huang WH, Condon J, Hancock L, Hancock J, Ghamsary M, Garite TJ. Implementation of laborist program and evaluation of the effect upon cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol (2013) 209(251): e1-6.

Wilson-Leedy JG, DiSilvestro AJ, Repke JT, Pauli JM. Reduction in the cesarean delivery rate after obstetric care consensus guideline implementation. Obstetrics & Gynecology (2016). 128(1): 145-152.

Induction of Labor

Kjerulff KH, Attanasio LB, Edmonds JK, Kozhimannil KB, Repke JT. Labor induction and cesarean delivery: A prospective cohort study of first births in Pennsylvania, USA. Birth. (2017). 00:1‐10.

Mishanina E, Rogozinska E, Thatthi T, Uddin-Khan R, Khan KS, Meads C. Use of labor induction and risk of cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ (2014). 186(9): 665-673.

Nicholson JM, Cronholm P, Kellar LC, Stenson MH, Macones GA. The association between increased use of labor induction and reduced rate of cesarean delivery. Journal of Women’s Health (2009). 18(11): 1747-1758.

Tolcher MC, Holbert MR, Weaver AL, McGree ME, Olson JE, El-Nashar SA, Famuyide AO, Brost Bc. Predicting cesarean delivery after induction of labor among nulliparous women at term. Obstet Gynecol (2016).

Latent Early Labor

Approaches to limit intervention during labor and birth. Committee Opinion No. 687. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2017;129 :e20–8.

Bailit JL, Dierker L, Blanchard MH, Mercer BM. Outcomes of women presenting in active versus latent phase of spontaneous labor. Obstet Gynecol (2005) 105(1):77–9. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000147843.12196.00

Bohren MA, Hofmeyr G, Sakala C, Fukuzawa RK, Cuthbert A. Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 7.

Cary AJ.lntervention rates in spontaneous term labour in low risk nulliparous women. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol (1990) 30(1): 46-51

Cohen WR, Friedman EA Perils of the new labor management guidelines. Am J Obstets Gynecol. 2014.

Declercq E, Menacker F, MacDorman M. Rise in “no indicated risk” primary caesareans in the United States, 1991-2001: cross sectional analysis. BMJ (2005) 330(7482):71–72. doi:10.1136/bmj.38279.705336.0B

Fraser W, Marcoux S, Moutquin J, Christen A. Effect of early amniotomy on the risk of dystocia in nulliparous women. The New England Journal of Medicine (1993) 328(16): 1145-1149.

Friedman, Emanuel A. The graphic analysis of labor. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Volume 68 , Issue 6 , 1568 – 1575.

Hemminki E, Simukka R. The timing of hospital admission and progress of labour. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol (1986) 22(1–2):85–94.doi:10.1016/0028-2243(86)90093-6

Hilliard AM, Chauhan SP, Zhao Y, Rankins NC. Effect of obesity on length of labor in nulliparous women. Am J Perinatol. 2012;29(2):127- 132.

Holmes P, Oppenheimer LW, Wen SW. The relationship between cervical dilatation at initial presentation in labour and subsequent intervention. BJOG (2001) 108(11):1120–4. doi:10.1016/S0306-5456(01)00265-0

Impey L, Hobson J, O’Herlihy C. Graphic analysis of actively managed labor: prospective computation of labor progress in 500 consecutive nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at term. Am J Obstet Gynecol (2000) 183(2):438–43. doi:10.1067/mob.2000.105899

Janssen PA, Iker CE, Carty EA. Early labour assessment and support at home: a randomized controlled trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Can (2003) 25(9):734–41.doi:10.1016/S1701-2163(16)31002-7

Janssen PA, Still DK, Klein MC, Singer J, Carty EA, Liston RM, et al. Early labor assessment and support at home versus telephone triage: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol (2006) 108(6):1463–9. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000247644.64154.bb

Johnson R, Slade P. Does fear of childbirth during pregnancy predict emergency caesarean section? BjOG 2002; 109(11): 1213-21.

Kjaergaard H, Olsen J, Ottesen B, Dykes AK. Incidence and outcomes of dystocia in the active phase of labor in term nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand (2009) 88(4):402–7. doi:10.1080/00016340902811001

Kjaergaard H, Olsen J, Ottesen B, Nyberg P, Dykes AK. Obstetric risk indicators for labour dystocia in nulliparous women: a multi-centre cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (2008) 8(45). doi:10.1186/1471- 2393-8-45

Kjaergaard H, Dykes AK, Ottesen B, Olsen J. Risk indicators for dystocia in low-risk nulliparous women: a study on lifestyle and anthropometrical factors. J Obstet Gynaecol (2010) 30(1):25–9. doi:10.3109/01443610903276417

Klein MC, Kelly A, Kaczorowski J, Grzybowski S. The effect of family physician timing of maternal admission on procedures in labour and maternaland infant morbidity. J Obstet Gynaecol Can (2004) 26(7):641–5. doi:10.1016/S1701-2163(16)30611-9

Klein M, Lloyd I, Redman C, Bull M, Turnbull AC. A comparison of low-risk pregnant women booked for delivery in two systems of care: shared-care (consultant) and integrated general practice unit. I. Obstetrical procedures and neonatal outcome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol (1983) 90(2):118–22. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1983.tb08894.x

Klein M, Lloyd I, Redman C, Bull M, Turnbull AC. A comparison of low-risk pregnant women booked for delivery in two systems of care: shared-care (consultant) and integrated general practice unit. II. Labour and delivery management and neonatal outcome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol (1983) 90(2):123–8. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1983.tb08894.x

Lagrew DC,jr., Adashek J. Lowering the cesarean section rate in a private hospital: comparison of individual physicians' rates, risk factors, and outcomes. Amj Obstet Gynecol (1998)178(6): 1207-14.

Main EK, Moore D, Farrell B, et al. Is there a useful cesarean birth measure?Assessment of the nulliparous termsingleton vertex cesarean birth rate as a tool for obstetric quality improvement. Am J Obstet Gynecol. (2006) 194(6):1644-1652.

Maghoma J, Buchmann E. Maternal and fetal risks associated with prolonged latent phase of labour. J Obstet Gynaecol (2002) 22(1):16–9.

Malone F, Geary M, Chelmow D, Stronge J, Boylan P, D’Alton M. Prolonged labor in nulliparas: lessons from the active management of labor. Obstet Gynecol (1996) 88(2): 211-215

McNiven PS, Williams JI, Hodnett E, Kaufman K, Hannah ME. An early labor assessment program: a randomized, controlled trial. Birth (1998) 25(1):5–10.doi:10.1046/j.1523-536x.1998.00005.x

Mikolajczyk R, Zhang J, Grewal J, Chan L, Petersen A, Gross M. Early versus Late Admission to Labor Affects Labor Progression and Risk of Cesarean Section in Nulliparous Women. Front Med (2016) doi: 10.3389/fmed.2016.00026

MidwiferyWomens Health. (2010) 55(4):308-318.

Morris H, Ruderman J, Lacy J. The development and evaluation of an obstetrical triage programme. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can (1996) 18:337–46.

Neal JL, Lowe NK, Caughey AB, et al. Applying a physiologic partograph to Consortium on Safe Labor data to identify opportunities for safely decreasing cesarean births among nulliparous women. Birth. 2018

Neal JL, Lowe NK, Ahijevych KL, Patrick TE, Cabbage LA, Corwin EJ. “Active labor” duration and dilation rates among low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset: A systematic review. 

Neal J, Lamp J, Buck J, Lowe N, Gillespie S, Ryan S. Outcomes of nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset admitted to hospitals in preactive versus active labor. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health (2014) 59(1) 28-34.

Nelson D, McIntire D, Leveno K. False labor at term in singleton pregnancies. Obstetrics & Gynecology (2017) 130(1): 139-145.

Peipert J, Bracken M. Maternal age: an independent risk factor for cesarean delivery. Obstetrics & Gynecology (1993) 81(2): 200-205.

Rahnama P, Ziaei S, Faghihzadeh S. Impact of early admission in labor on method of delivery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet (2006) 92(3):217–20. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2005.12.016

Roberts J, Hanson L. Best practices in second stage labor care: maternal bearing down and positioning. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007;52(3):238-45.

Roshanfekr D, Blakemore KJ, Lee J, Hueppchen NA, Witter FR. Station at onset of active labor in nulliparous patients and risk of cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol (1999) 93(3):329–31. doi:10.1016/ S0029-7844(98)00451-7

Safe prevention of the primary cesarean delivery. Obstetric Care Consensus No. 1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2014;123:693–711.

Spong CY, Berghella V, Wenstrom KD, Mercer BM, Saade GR. Preventing the first cesarean delivery: summary of a joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Workshop. Obstet Gynecol (2012) 120(5):1181–93. doi:10.1097/ AOG.0b013e3182704880

Tilden EL, Lee VR, Allen AJ, Griffin EE, Caughey AB. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Latent versus Active Labor Hospital Admission for Medically Low-Risk, Term Women. Birth. 2015;42(3):219-26.

Turcot L, Marcoux S, Fraser W. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for operative delivery in nulliparous women. J Obstet Gynaecol (1997) 176(2): 395-402.

Wilson-Leedy J, DiSilvestro A, Repke J, Pauli J. Reduction in the cesarean delivery rate after obstetric care consensus guideline implementation. Obstetrics & Gynecology (2016) 128(1) 145-152

Zhang J, Landy HJ, Branch DW. et al. Consortium on Safe Labor. Contemporary patterns of spontaneous labor with normal neonatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116:1281–7.

Zhang J, Troendle J, Reddy UM, et al. Contemporary cesarean delivery practice in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. (2010) 203(4):326.e1-326.e10.

Zhang J, Troendle JF, Yancey MK. Reassessing the labor curve in nulliparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. (2002) 187(4):824-828.

Lay Press

Keehn J. California hospitals to avoid if you don’t want a C-section. California HealthCare Foundation (2016).

Haelle T. Childbirth: what to reject when you’re expecting. (2017).

Women and their bodies a course. Boston Women’s Health Collective (1970).

Low Risk Analysis

2018 National Physician Fee Schedule. American Medical Association (2018).

Armstrong J, Kozhimannil K, McDermott P, Saade G, Srinivas S. Comparing variation in hospital rates of cesarean delivery among low-risk women using 3 different measures (2016). 153-163.

Berenson-Eggers type of service (BETOS) codes.

HCPCS-BETOS-2016 (2016).

MVC Payment breakdown 90-day.

Osterman MJK, Martin JA. Trends in low-risk cesarean delivery in the United States, 1990–2013. National Center for Health Statistics. National vital statistics reports (2014). 63(6).

Low Risk Cesarean Delivery

Armstrong J, McDermott P, Saade G, Srinivas S. Coding update of the SMFM definition of low risk for cesarean delivery from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM. SMFM Special Report (2017). B2-B12.e56

Armstrong J, Kozhimannil K, McDermott P, Saade G, Srinivas S. Comparing variation in hospital rates of cesarean delivery among low-risk women using 3 different measures (2016). 153-163.

Low-risk, primary cesarean births in Medicaid: NAMD/AMCHP issue brief. National Association of Medicaid Directors and Association of Maternal & Child Health Programs (2015). 1-8.

Osterman MJK, Martin JA. Trends in low-risk cesarean delivery in the United States, 1990–2013. National Center for Health Statistics. National vital statistics reports (2014). 63(6).

Mortality

Levine EM, Ghai V, Barton JJ, Strom CM. Modeof delivery and risk of respiratory diseases in newborns (2001) 97(3) 439-442.

Main EK, Abreo A, McNulty J, Gilbert W, McNally C, Poeltler D, Lanner-Cusin K, Fenton D, Gipps T, Melsop K, Greene N, Gould JB, Kilpatrick S. Measuring severe maternal morbidity: validation of potential measures. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology (2016). 643e1-e10.

Mhyre JM, Bateman BT, Leffert LR. Influence of patient comorbidities on the risk of near-miss maternal morbidity or mortality. Anesthesiology (2011). 115(5): 963-972.

Molina G, Weiser TG, Lipsitz SR, Esquivel MM, Uribe-Leitz T, Azad T, Shah N, Semrau K, Berry WR, Gawande AA, Haynes AB. Relationship between delivery rate and maternal and neonatal mortality. American Medical Organization (2015). 314(21): 2263-2270.

Sanagou M, Wolfe R, Forbes A, Reid CM. Hospital-level associations with 30-day patient mortality after cardiac surgery: a tutorial on the application and interpretation of marginal and multilevel logistic regression. BioMed Central (2012). 12(28)

State Story: The California Pregnancy-Associated Mortality Review. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (2016).

Xie R, Gaudet L, Krewski D, Grahm ID, Walker MC, Wen SW. Higher cesarean delivery rates are associated with higher infant mortality rates in industrialized countries. Birth (2015). 42(1):62-69.

Nonreassuring Fetal Heart Tracing

Minkoff H, Berkowitz R. Fetal Monitoring Bundle. Obstetrics & Gynecology (2009). 114(6):1332-1335.

nulliparous term singleton vertex (NTSV) Cesarean Birth

Main EK. Leading change on labor and delivery: reducing nulliparous term singleton vertex (NTSV) cesarean rates. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety (2017). 43:51–52

Vadnais MA, Hacker MR, Shah NT, Jordan J, Modest AM, Siegel M, Golen TH. Quality improvement initiatives lead to reduction in nulliparous term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety (2017). 43(2):53-61.

Quality Improvement

10 IHI Innovations to Improve Health and Health Care. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2017.

Improving perinatal care diagram. Institute for Healthcare Improvement (2012).

Main EK, Morton CH, Hopkins D, Giuliani G, Melsop K, Gould JB. Cesarean deliveries, outcomes, and opportunities for change in California: toward a public agenda for maternity care safety and quality. Palo Alto, CA: CMQCC (2011).

Main EK, Morton CH, Melsop K, Hopkins D, Giuliani G, Gould JB. Creating a public agenda for maternity safety and quality in cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol (2012). 120(5):1194-8. DOI: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e31826fc13d

Markus AR, Rosenbaum S. The role of Medicaid in promoting access to high-quality, high-value maternity care. Women’s Health Issues Journal (2010).20:S67-S78.

Dotun Ogunyemi, Sara McGlynn, Anne Ronk, Patricia Knudsen, Tonyie Andrews-Johnson, Angeline Raczkiewicz, Andrew Jovanovski, Sangeeta Kaur, Mark Dykowski, Mark Redman & Ray Bahado-Singh. Using a multifaceted quality improvement initiative to reverse the rising trend of cesarean births. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine (2017). DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1292244

Vadnais MA, Hacker MR, Shah NT, Jordan J, Modest AM, Siegel M, Golen TH. Quality improvement initiatives lead to reduction in nulliparous term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety (2017). 43(2):53-61.

Yuan CT, Pronovost PJ, Marsteller JA. Harnessing the power of peer influence to improve quality. American Journal of Medical Quality (2018). 1-3. DOI: 10.1177/1062860618769158

Rural

Henke RM, Wier LM, Marder WD, Friedman BS, Wong HS. Geographic variation in cesarean delivery in the United States by payer. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (2014). 14(387).

Shah NT. Eroding access and quality of childbirth care in rural US counties. American Medical Association (2018). E1-E2.

Safe Reduction of Primary Cesarean Birth

Caught A, Cahill A, Guise JM, Rouse D. Safe prevention of the primary cesarean delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology (2014). 179-193.

Safe reduction of primary cesarean births: supporting intended vaginal births. Council on Patient Safety in Women’s Health Care (2015).

Boyle A, Reddy UM. Epidemiology of cesarean delivery: the scope of the problem. Elsevier, Seminars in Perinatology. 308-314.

Caughey AB, Cahill AG, Guise JM, Rouse DJ. Safe prevention of the primary cesarean delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology (2014). 179-193.

Chaillet N, Dumont A. Evidence-based strategies for reducing cesarean section rates: a meta-analysis. Birth (2007). 34(1): 53-64.

Main EK. Leading change on labor and delivery: reducing nulliparous term singleton vertex (NTSV) cesarean rates. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety (2017). 43:51–52

Spong CY, Berghella V, Wenstrom KD, Mercer BM, Saade GR. Preventing the first cesarean delivery. Obstetrics & Gynecology (2012). 120(5): 1181-1193.

Vadnais MA, Hacker MR, Shah NT, Jordan J, Modest AM, Siegel M, Golen TH. Quality improvement initiatives lead to reduction in nulliparous term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety (2017). 43(2):53-61.

Wilson-Leedy JG, DiSilvestro AJ, Repke JT, Pauli JM. Reduction in the cesarean delivery rate after obstetric care consensus guideline implementation. Obstetrics & Gynecology (2016). 128(1): 145-152.

Support Intended Vaginal Birth

Safe reduction of primary cesarean births: supporting intended vaginal births. Council on Patient Safety in Women’s Health Care (2015).